American Invasion


American Invasion
(1775-1776)
   Grew out of the belief entertained by the rebellious colonists that the French of Canada could readily be won to their side. As a matter of fact the latter, while for the most part showing no enthusiasm to join Carleton's forces, were still less inclined to coöperate with the invading army under Montgomery and Arnold, or to support the movement for union with the New Englanders. On the other hand, the Americans had a number of English-speaking sympathizers in Montreal--men who had come there from the colonies to the south. This, and its geographical position, made the capture of Montreal an easy matter; but Quebec was a different problem. Here Carleton gathered a small but efficient force of regulars and militia, and successfully held the town against the invading army. Montgomery was killed in the assault, Dec. 31, 1775, and in the spring of 1776 the siege was raised. The invading army hastily retreated to Montreal, and finally was driven out of the country.
   Index: P Joseph Papineau carries despatch to Carleton, 5. Dr Agitation worked up by American emissaries, 79-80; disaffection in Montreal, 82; seizure of Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 82; Arnold captures vessel on Lake Champlain, 83; defence of St. Johns, 84-85; martial law proclaimed, 86; militia called out, 86-88; the habitants indifferent or disaffected, 88; English-speaking inhabitants of Montreal refuse to serve, 88; Guy Johnson raises Indian levies, 88; measures of defence, 90-93; Congress decides to invade Canada, 95-96; Arnold starts for the Kennebec, 96; Montgomery assumes command, 97; Allen appears before Montreal, is captured and sent to England, 98-99; Montgomery lays siege to St. Johns, 100-101; Chambly captured by the Americans, 101; Preston surrenders at St. Johns, 102; Arnold marches on Quebec, 106-111; Carleton escapes to Quebec, 112-113; organizes the defence, 114-115; progress of the siege, 118-124; Montgomery and Arnold attack the city, 124-126; death of Montgomery, 126; failure of Arnold's attack, 127-132; Franklin's mission to Montreal, 135-136; arrival of the fleet at Quebec with reinforcements, 137; Carleton attacks the Americans, 138-139; evacuation of Canada, 141-147.
   See also Montgomery, Richard; Arnold, Benedict; Dorchester, Guy Carleton; Allen, Ethan.
   Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada; Smith, Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony; Stone, Invasion of Canada; Codman, Arnold's Expedition to Quebec; Lucas, History of Canada; Coffin, The Province of Quebec and the Early American Revolution; Bradley, The Making of Canada.

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